Prof. Dr hab. Edward Darżynkiewicz

Division of Biophysics
Institute of Experimental Physics
University of Warsaw
Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland

Phone: +48 22 5532310


Research interests

Dr. Darżynkiewicz's research concentrates on organic chemistry and biochemistry of nucleic acids. Since middle 80. he has been involved in studying the role of 5' mRNA and 5' U snRNA cap structures in gene expresssion regulation: initiation of protein translation, pre-mRNA splicing and RNA intracellular transport. He has designed and synthesized many model cap analogues which appeared to be invaluable tools for research into molecular mechanisms of the above processes. For example, the synthetic trimethyl guanosine cap anlogues enabled to establish the signalling role of trimethylguanosine cap structure in nuclear import of some of U snRNAs. Both, synthetic cap analogues and affinity resins based on them, helped to isolate and characterize several new regulatory factors, like nuclear cap binding complex (CBC) which is engaged in pre-mRNA splicing, or new cytoplasmic eIF4E isoforms from nematode C.elegans whose functions are under investigation. Selected cap analogs have been used in comprehensive biophysical studies of the molecular recognition of cap structures by specific protein factors. These type of studies are being performed by physicists from Department of Biophysics, who Dr. Darżynkiewicz closely collaborates with (R. Stolarski and J. Antosiewicz). He developed a broad collaboration with biochemical groups from many leading laboratories, like with Dr. R.Rhoads (Louisiana State University in Shreveport, USA), Dr. N.Sonenberg (McGill University in Montreal), Dr. S.Burley (Rockefeller University in New York), Dr. I.Mattaj (EMBL, Heidelberg), Dr. S.Cusack (EMBL, Grenoble).

Since 1990 Dr. Darżynkiewicz's research has been continuously supported by the grants from The Polish Committee for Scientific Research. During 1998-2001 he was a coinvestigator in the Polish-US-Canadian international HFSP grant.

Dr. Darżynkiewicz has authored over 90 original publications and reviews. His publications have been cited over 1000 times in the scientific literature.

Professional experience

1970 - 1971 M.Sc. in organic chemistry (Dept. of Chemistry, Warsaw University)
1971 - 1975 Predoctoral Fellow, Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University
1976 Ph.D. in nuclec acids organic chemistry (supervised by Prof. D.Shugar), Dept. Chem., Warsaw University
1976 - 1994 Adjunct (Assistant Professor), Dept. of Biophysics, Inst Exp. Physics, Warsaw University
1978 - 1980 Postdoctoral Fellow (supervised by Dr. Aaron Shatkin), Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Nutley, NJ, USA
84', 85', 87' 3 x 3 months, Visiting Scientist in the Laboratory headed by Professor Stanley Tahara, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
1988 3 months, Visiting Scientist in Laboratory headed by Professor Harri Lonnberg, University of Turku, turku, Finland
1994 Ph.D. hab. (habilitation) in biochemistry of protein translation, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
1994-2001 Dr.hab. (Associate Professor), Dept. of Biophysics, Inst. Exp. Physics, Warsaw University
2001 - Professor, Dept. of Biophysics, Inst. Exp. Physics, Warsaw University

Selected (out of 100) peer-reviewed publications


    1. Kropiwnicka A., Kuchta K., Lukaszewicz M., Kowalska J., Jemielity J., Ginalski K., Darzynkiewicz E., Zuberek J.: Five eIF4E isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana are characterized by distinct features of cap analogs binding.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456 (2015) 47-52. IF 2,281.
    2. Kubacka D., Miguel R.N., Minshall N., Darzynkiewicz E., Standart N., Zuberek J.: Distinct Features of Cap Binding by eIF4E1b Proteins.; J. Mol. Biol. 427 (2015) 387-405. IF 3,959.
    3. Smietanski M., Werner M., Purta E., Kaminska K.H., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E., Nowotny M., Bujnicki J.M.: Structural analysis of human 2’-O-ribose methyltransferases involved in mRNA cap structure formation.; Nat. Commun. 5 (2014), Article No: 3004 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4004. IF 10,742.
    4. Freire E.R., Malvezzi A.M., Vashisht A.A., Zuberek J., Saada E.A., Langousis G., Nascimento J.De F., Moura D., Darzynkiewicz E., Hill K., De Melo Neto O.P., Wohlschlegel J.A., Sturm N.R., Campbell D.A.: Trypanosoma brucei Translation Initiation Factor Homolog EIF4E6 Forms a Tripartite Cytosolic Complex with EIF4G5 and a Capping Enzyme Homolog.; Eukaryotic Cell 13 (2014) 896-908. IF 3,179.
    5. Kowalska J., Wypijewska del Nogal A., Darzynkiewicz Z.M., Buck J., Nicola C., Kuhn A.N., Lukaszewicz M., Zuberek J., Strenkowska M., Ziemniak M., Maciejczyk M., Bojarska E., Rhoads R.E., Darzynkiewicz E., Sahin U., Jemielity J.: Synthesis, properties, and biological activity of boranophosphate analogs of the mRNA cap: versatile tools for manipulation of therapeutically relevant cap-dependent processes.; Nucleic Acids Res. 42 (2014) 10245-10264, doi: 10.1093/nar/gku757. IF 8,808.
    6. Piecyk K., Lukaszewicz M., Darzynkiewicz E., Jankowska-Anyszka M.: Triazole-containing monophosphate mRNA cap analogs as effective translation inhibitors.; RNA 20 (2014) 1539-1547, doi: 10.1261/rna.046193.114. IF 4,622.
    7. Freire E.R., Vashisht A.A., Malvezzi A.M., Zuberek J., Langousis G., Saada E.A., Nascimento J. De F., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E., Hill K., De Melo Neto O.P., Wohlschlegel J.A., Sturm N.R., Campbell D.A.: eIF4F-like complexes formed by cap-binding homolog TbEIF4E5 with TbEIF4G1 or TbEIF4G2 are implicated in post-transcriptional regulation in Trypanosoma brucei.; RNA 20 (2014) 1272-1286. IF 4,622.
    8. Nowakowska M., Kowalska J., Martin F., d’Orchymont A., Zuberek J., Lukaszewicz M., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: Cap analogs containing 6-thioguanosine - reagents for the synthesis of mRNAs selectively photo-crosslinkable with cap-binding biomolecules.; Org. Biomol. Chem. 12 (2014) 4841-4847, doi: 10.1039/c4ob00059e. IF 3,487.
    9. Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E.: mRNA and snRNA Cap Analogs: Synthesis and Applications.; in: Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids. Fundamentals and Clinical Applications (V.A. Erdmann, W.T .Markiewicz and J. Barciszewski Eds) Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London, 2014, pages: 511-561. (rozdział w książce)
    10. Zytek M., Kowalska J., Lukaszewicz M., Wojtczak B.A., Zuberek J., Ferenc-Mrozek A., Darzynkiewicz E., Niedzwiecka A., Jemielity J.: Towards novel efficient and stable nuclear import signals: synthesis and properties of trimethylguanosine cap analogs modified within the 5',5'-triphosphate bridge.; Org. Biomol. Chem. 12 (2014) 9184-9199. DOI: 10.1039/c4ob01579g. IF 3,487.
    11. Su W., Slepenkov S.V., Slevin M.K., Lyons S.M., Ziemniak M., Kowalska J., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J., Marzluff W.F., Rhoads R.E.: mRNAs containing the histone 3 ' stem-loop are degraded primarily by decapping mediated by oligouridylation of the 3 ' end.; RNA 19 (2013) 1-16. IF 4,622.
    12. Grudzien-Nogalska E., Kowalska J., Su W., Kuhn A., Slepenkov S.V., Darzynkiewicz E., Sahin U., Jemielity J., Rhoads R.E.: Synthetic mRNAs with superior translation and stability properties.; (2013), Methods Mol. Biol. 969, 55-72. (rozdział w książce)
    13. Ziemniak M., Szabelski M., Lukaszewicz M., Nowicka A., Darzynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E., Wieczorek Z., Jemielity J.: Evaluation of fluorescent cap analogues for mRNA labeling.; RSC Adv. 3 (2013) 20943-20958. IF 3,708.
    14. Warminski M., Kowalska J., Buck J., Zuberek J., Lukaszewicz M., Nicola C,. Kuhn A.N., Sahin U., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: The synthesis of isopropylidene mRNA cap analogs modified with phosphorothioate moiety and their evaluation as promoters of mRNA translation.; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23 (2013) 3753-3758. IF 2,331.
    15. Kubacka D., Kamenska A., Broomhead H., Minshall N., Darzynkiewicz E., Standart N.,: Investigating the Consequences of eIF4E2 (4EHP) Interaction with 4E-Transporter on Its Cellular Distribution in HeLa Cells.; PLOS ONE 8 (2013) Article Number: e72761 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072761. IF 3,534.
    16. Wypijewska del Nogal A., Surleac M.D., Kowalska J., Lukaszewicz M., Jemielity J., Bisaillon M., Darzynkiewicz E., Milac A.L., Bojarska E.: Analysis of decapping scavenger cap complex using cap analogs reveals molecular determinants for efficient cap binding.; FEBS J. 280 (2013) 6508-6527. IF 3,986.
    17. Honcharenko M., Zytek M., Bestas B., Moreno P., Jemielity J., Darzynkiewicz E., Smith C.I.E., Strömberg R.: Synthesis and evaluation of stability of m3G-CAP analogues in serum-supplemented medium and cytosolic extract.; Bioorg. Med. Chem. 21 (2013) 7921-7928. IF 2,951.
    18. Jemielity J., Lukaszewicz M., Kowalska J., Czarnecki J., Zuberek J., Darzynkiewicz E.: Synthesis of biotin labelled cap analogue - Incorporable into mRNA transcripts and promoting cap-dependent translation.; Org. Biomol. Chem. 10 (2012) 8570-8574.
    19. Szczepaniak S.A., Zuberek J., Darzynkiewicz E., Kufel J., Jemielity J.: Affinity resins containing enzymatically resistant mRNA cap analogs - A new tool for the analysis of cap-binding proteins.; RNA 18 (2012) 1421-1432.
    20. Wypijewska A., Bojarska E., Lukaszewicz M., Stepinski J., Jemielity J.,. Davis R.E, Darzynkiewicz E.: 7-methylguanosine diphosphate (m 7GDP) is not hydrolyzed but strongly bound by decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes and potently inhibits their activity.; Biochemistry 51 (2012) 8003-8013.
    21. Rydzik, A. M., Kulis, M., Lukaszewicz, M., Kowalska, J. , Zuberek, J., Darzynkiewicz, Z. M., Darzynkiewicz, E., Jemielity, J.: Synthesis and properties of mRNA cap analogs containing imidodiphosphate moiety-fairly mimicking natural cap structure, yet resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis.; Bioorg. Med. Chem., 20 (2012) 1699-1710.
    22. Frank F., Fabian M.R., Stepinski J., Jemielity, J., Darzynkiewicz, E., Sonenberg, N., Nagar B.: Structural analysis of 5 '-mRNA-cap interactions with the human AGO2 MID domain.; EMBO Reports, 12 (2011) 415-420.
    23. Wypijewska A., Bojarska E., Lukaszewicz M., Stepinski J., Jemielity J., Darzynkiewicz E.: Experimental physics' resources for studying biological macromolecules; deep insight into DcpS enzymatic hydrolysis of short capped mRNAs.; Eur. Biophys. J. Biophys. Lett. 40 (2011) Supplement 1, 65-65.
    24. Su, W., Slepenkov, S., Grudzien-Nogalska, E., Kowalska, J., Kulis, M., Zuberek, J., Lukaszewicz, M., Darzynkiewicz, E., Jemielity, J., Rhoads, R.E.: Translation, stability, and resistance to decapping of mRNAs containing caps substituted in the triphosphate chain with BH(3), Se, and NH.; RNA, 17 (2011) 978-988.
    25. Kiraga-Motoszko K., Niedzwiecka A., Modrak-Wojcik A., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E., Stolarski R.: Thermodynamics of Molecular Recognition of mRNA 5 ' Cap by Yeast Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E.; J. Physical Chem. B, 115 (2011) 8746-8754.


    1. Belanger F., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Pelletier J.: Characterization of hMTr1, a Human Cap1 2 '-O-Ribose Methyltransferase.; J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 33037-33044.
    2. Kuhn A.N., Diken M., Kreiter S., Selmi A., Kowalska, J. Jemielity, J., Darzynkiewicz, E., Huber, C., Tureci O., Sahin, U.: Phosphorothioate cap analogs increase stability and translational efficiency of RNA vaccines in immature dendritic cells and induce superior immune responses in vivo.; Gene Therapy 17 (2010) 961-971.
    3. Wypijewska A., Bojarska E., Stepinski, J., Jankowska-Anyszka, M., Jemielity J., Davis, R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Structural requirements for Caenorhabditis elegans DcpS substrates based on fluorescence and HPLC enzyme kinetic studies.; FEBS J. 277 (2010) 3003-3013.
    4. Shaked H., Wachtel C., Tulinski P., Yahia N.H., Barda O., Darżynkiewicz E., Nilsen T.W., Michaeli S.: Establishment of an in vitro trans-splicing system in Trypanosoma brucei that requires endogenous spliced leader RNA.; Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (2010) art. no. e114.
    5. Strenkowska M., Kowalska J., Lukaszewicz M., Zuberek J., Su W.,. Rhoads R. E, Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: Towards mRNA with superior translational activity: synthesis and properties of ARCA tetraphosphates with single phosphorothioate modifications.; New J. Chem. 34 (2010) 993-1007.
    6. Guranowski A., Wojdyla A.M., Zimny J., Wypijewska A., Kowalska J., Lukaszewicz M., Jemielity J., Darzynkiewicz E., Jagiello A., Bieganowski P: Recognition of different nucleotidyl-derivatives as substrates of reactions catalyzed by various HIT-proteins.; New J. Chem. 34 (2010) 888-893.
    7. Jemielity, J., Kowalska, J., Rydzik, A. M., Darzynkiewicz, E.: Synthetic mRNA cap analogs with a modified triphosphate bridge - synthesis, applications and prospects.; New J. Chem. 34 (2010) 829-844.
    8. Wallace A., Filbin M.E., Veo B., McFarland C., Stępiński J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Darżynkiewicz E., Davis R.E.: The Nematode Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E/G Complex Works with a trans-Spliced Leader Stem-Loop To Enable Efficient Translation of Trimethylguanosine-Capped RNAs.; Mol. Cell. Biol. 30 (2010) 1958-1970.
    9. Benarroch D., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Shuman S.: Cap analog substrates reveal three clades of cap guanine-N2 methyltransferases with distinct methyl acceptor specificities.; RNA 16 (2010) 211-220.
    10. Yoffe Y., Leger M., Zinoviev A., Zuberek J., Darzynkiewicz E., Wagner G., Shapira M.: Evolutionary changes in the Leishmania eIF4F complex involve variations in the eIF4E-eIF4G interactions.; Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (2009) 3243-53.
    11. Kowalska J., Lukaszewicz M., Zuberek J., Ziemniak M., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: Phosphorothioate analogs of m7GTP are enzymatically stable inhibitors of cap-dependent translation.; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19 (2009) 1921-1925.
    12. Worch R., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Niedzwiecka A., Stepinski J., Mazza C., Darzynkiewicz E., Cusack S., Stolarski R.: Diverse Role of Three Tyrosines in Binding of the RNA 5' Cap to the Human Nuclear Cap Binding Complex.; J. Mol. Biol. 385 (2009) 618-627.
    13. Kowalska J., Lewdorowicz M., Zuberek J., Grudzien-Nogalska E., Bojarska E., Stepinski J., Rhoads R.E., Darzynkiewicz E., Davis R.E., Jemielity J.: Synthesis and characterization of mRNA cap analogs containing phosphorothioate substitutions that bind tightly to eIF4E and are resistant to the decapping pyrophosphatase DcpS.; RNA 14 (2008) 1119-1131.
    14. Mittra B., Zamudio J.R., Bujnicki J.M., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E., Campbell D.A., Sturm N.R.: The TbMTr1 spliced leader RNA cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei acts with substrate specificity.; J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 3161-3172.
    15. Deshmukh M.V., Jones B.N., Quang-Dang D.-U., Flinders J., Floor S.N., Kim C., Jemielity J., Kalek M., Darzynkiewicz E., Gross J.D.: mRNA decapping is promoted by an RNA binding channel in Dcp2.; Molecular Cell 29 (2008) 324-336.
    16. Mathonnet G., Fabian M.R., Svitkin Y.V., Parsyan A., Huck L., Jaramillo M., Murata T., Biffo S., Merrick W.C., Darzynkiewicz E., Pillai R.S., Filipowicz W., Duchaine T.F., Sonenberg N.: MicroRNA function in vitro: inhibition of translational initiation by targeting eIF4F.; Science 317 (2007) 1764-1767.
    17. Grudzien-Nogalska E., Jemielity J., Kowalska J., Darzynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Phosphorothioate Cap Analogs Stabilize mRNA and Increase Traslational Efficiency in Mammalian Cells.; RNA 13 (2007) 1745-1755.
    18. Kowalska J., Lewdorowicz M., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: A simple and rapid synthesis of nucleotide analogues containing a phosphorothioate moiety at the terminal position of the phosphate chain.; Tetrahedron Lett. 48 (2007) 5475-5479.
    19. Jemielity J., Stolarski R., Darzynkiewicz E.: Synthesis of 3H and 13C labeled mRNA cap dinucleotides - useful tools for NMR, biochemical and biological studies.; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1315-1319.
    20. Lewdorowicz M., Jemielity J., Kierzek R., Shapira M., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E.: Solid-supported synthesis of 5'-mRNA cap-4 from trypanosomatides.; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1329-1333.
    21. Kowalska J., Lewdorowicz M., Zuberek J., Bojarska E., Stepinski J., Stolarski R., Darzynkiewicz E., Jemielity J.: Assignment of the absolute configuration of P-chiral 5' mRNA cap analogues containing phosphorothioate moiety.; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1301-1305.
    22. Darzynkiewicz Z.M., Bojarska E., Stepinski J., Jemielity J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Davis R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Affinity of dinucleotide cap analogues for human decapping scavenger (hDcpS).; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1349-1352.
    23. Lewdorowicz M., Stepinski J., Kierzek R., Jemielity J., Zuberek J., Yoffe Y., Shapira M., Stolarski R., Darzynkiewicz E.: Synthesis of Leishmania cap-4 intermediates, cap-2 and cap-3.; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1339-1348.
    24. Wierzchowski J., Pietrzak M., Stepinski J., Jemielity J., Kalek M., Bojarska E., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Davis R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Kinetics of C. elegans DcpS cap hydrolysis studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.; Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. Acids 26 (2007) 1211-1215.
    25. Grudzien-Nogalska E., Stepinski J., Jemielity J., Zuberek J., Stolarski R., Rhoads R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Synthesis of Anti-Reverse Cap Analogs (ARCAs) and Their Applications in mRNA Translation and Stability.; Methods Enzymol. 431 (2007) 203-227.
    26. Niedzwiecka A., Stepinski J., Antosiewicz J.M., Darzynkiewicz E., Stolarski R.: Biophysical approach to studies of cap-eIF4E interaction by synthetic cap analogues.; Methods Enzymol. 430 (2007) 209-246.
    27. Darzynkiewicz Z.M., Bojarska E., Kowalska J., Lewdorowicz M., Jemielity J., Kalek M., Stepinski J., Davis R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Interaction of human decapping scavenger with 5' mRNA cap analogues: structural requirements for catalytic activity.; J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 19 (2007) 285217(6pp).
    28. Cheng G., Cohen L., Mikhli C., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Stepinski J., Darzynkiewicz E., Davis R. E.: In vivo translation and stability of trans-spliced mRNAs in nematode embryos.; Mol. Biochem. Parasitology 153 (2007) 95-106.
    29. Zuberek J., Kubacka D., Jablonowska A., Jemielity J., Stepinski J., Sonenberg N., Darzynkiewicz E.: Weak binding affinity of human 4EHP for mRNA cap analogs.; RNA 13 (2007) 691-697.
    30. Kalek M., Jemielity J., Darzynkiewicz Z.M., Bojarska E., Stepinski J., Stolarski R., Davis R.E., Darzynkiewicz E.: Enzymatically stable 5' mRNA cap analogs: Synthesis and binding studies with human DcpS decapping enzyme. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 14 (2006) 3223-3230.
    31. Grudzien E., Kalek M., Jemielity J., Darzynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Differential Inhibition of mRNA Degradation Pathways by Novel Cap Analogs.; J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 1857-1867.


    1. Westman B., Beeren L., Grudzień E., Stępiński J., Worch R., Żuberek J., Jemielity J., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E., Preiss T.: The antivirial drug ribavirin does not mimc the 7-methylguanosine moiety of the mRNAs cap structure in vitro.; RNA 11 (2005) 1505-1513 .
    2. Worch R., Niedźwiecka A., Stępiński J., Mazza C., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Darzynkiewicz E., Cusack S., Stolarski R.: Specificity of recognition of mRNA 5' cap by human nuclear cap-binding complex.; RNA 11 (2005) 1355-1363.
    3. Kałek M., Jemielity J., Stępiński J., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E.: A direct method for the synthesis of nucleoside 5'-methylenebis(phosphonate)s from nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 46 (2005) 2417-2421.
    4. Yoffe Y., Żuberek J., Lewdorowicz M., Zeira Z., Keasar C., Orr-Dahan I., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Shapira M.: Cap-binding activity of an eIF4E homolog from Leishmania.; RNA 10 (2004) 1764-175.
    5. Cohen L.S., Mikhli C., Friedman C., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Davis R.E.: Nematode m7GpppG - and m32,2,7GpppG - RNA decapping: Activities in Ascaris embryos and characterization of C. elegans scavenger DcpS.; RNA 10 (2004) 1609-1624
    6. Grudzień E., Stępiński J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Novel cap analogs for in vitro synthesis of mRNAs with high translational efficiency. RNA 10 (2004) 1479-1487.
    7. Lewdorowicz M., Yoffe Y., Żuberek J., Jemielity J., Stępiński J., Kierzek R., Stolarski R., Shapira M., Darżynkiewicz E.: Chemical synthesis and binding activity of the trypanosomatid cap-4 structure.; RNA 10 (2004) 1469-1478.
    8. Żuberek J., Jemielity J., Jabłonowska A., Stępiński J., Dadlez M., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E.: Influence of electric charge variation at residues 209 and 159 on interaction of eIF4E with the mRNA 5' terminus.; Biochemistry 43 (2004) 5370-5379.
    9. Jemielity J., Fowler T., Żuberek J., Stępiński J., Lewdorowicz M., Niedźwiecka A., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Novel 'anti-reverse' cap analogs with superior translational properties.; RNA 9 (2003) 1108-1122.
    10. Żuberek J., Wysłouch-Cieszyńska A., Niedźwiecka A., Dadlez M., Stępiński J., Augustyniak W., Gingras A.-Cl., Zhang Z., Burley S. K., Sonenberg N., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E.: Phosphorylation of eIF4E attenuates its interaction with mRNA 5' cap analogs by electrostatic repulsion: Intein-mediated protein ligation strategy to obtain phosphorylated protein.; RNA 9 (2003) 52-61.
    11. Bojarska E., Darżynkiewicz E.: Molekularne mechanizmy degradacji mRNA w komórkach eukariotycznych; w "Na pograniczu chemii i biologii", Tom V, str. 53-72, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań, 2002.
    12. Stępiński J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Darżynkiewicz E.: Synteza ważnych biologicznie dinukleotydów z wiązaniem 5',5'-oligofosforanowym.; w "Na pograniczu chemii i biologii", Tom V, str. 105-138, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań, 2002.
    13. Niedźwiecka A., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Sonenberg N., Stolarski R.: Positive heat capacity change upon specific binding of translation itiation factor eIF4E to mRNA 5' cap.; Biochemistry 41 (2002) 12140-12148.
    14. Stachelska A., Wieczorek Z., Ruszczyńska K., Stolarski R., Pietrzak M., Lamphear B. J., Rhoads R. E., Darżynkiewicz E., Jankowska-Anyszka M.: Interaction of three Caenorhabditis elegans isoforms of translation initiation factor eIF4E with mono- and trimethylated mRNA 5' cap analogues.; Acta Biochim. Pol. 49 (2002) 671-682.
    15. Miyoshi H., Dwyer D.S., Keiper B. D., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Discrimination between mono- and trimethylated cap structures by two isoforms of Caenorhabditis elegans eIF4E.; EMBO J. 21 (2002) 4680-4690.
    16. Niedźwiecka A., Marcotrigiano J., Stępiński J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Wysłouch-Cieszyńska A., Dadlez M., Gingras A-C., Mak P., Darżynkiewicz E., Sonenberg N., Burley S.K., Stolarski R.: Biophysical Studies of eIF4E Cap-binding Protein: Recognition of mRNA 5' Cap Structure and Synthetic Fragments of eIF4G and 4E-BP1 Proteins.; J. Mol. Biol. 319 (2002) 615-635.
    17. Stępiński J., Waddell C., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R.E.: Synthesis and properties of mRNAs containing the novel 'anti-reverse' cap analogs 7-methyl-(3'-O-methyl)GpppG and 7-methyl-(3'-deoxy)GpppG.; RNA 7 (2001) 1486-1495.


  1. Jankowska-Anyszka M., Darżynkiewicz E.: Struktura i funkcja końca 5' (kapu) mRNA i U snRNA.; Tom IV, str. 143-180, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań, 2000.
  2. Lampio A., Ahola T., Darżynkiewicz E., Stępiński J., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Kaariainen L.: Guanosine Nucleotide Analogs as Inhibitors of Alphavirus mRNA Capping Enzyme.; Antivirial Res. 42 (1999) 35-46.
  3. Cai A., Jankowska-Anyszka M., Centers A., Chlebicka L., Stępiński J., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R. E.: Quantitative Assessment of mRNA Cap Analogs as Inhibitors of Cell-Free Translation.; Biochemistry 38 (1999) 8538-8547.
  4. Jankowska-Anyszka M., Lamphear B. J., Aamodt E. J., Harrington T., Darżynkiewicz E., Stolarski R., Rhoads R.E.: Multiple Isoforms of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis Initiation Faktor 4E in Caenorhabditis elegans Can Distinguish between Mono- and Trimethylated mRNA Cap Structures.; J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 10538-10542.
  5. Joshi B., Cai A-L., Keiper B. D., Minich W. M., Mendez R., Beach C. M., Stępiński J., Stolarski R., Darżynkiewicz E., Rhoads R. E.: Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis Initiation Factor 4E at Ser-209.; J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 14597-14603.
  6. Maroney P.A., Denker J.A., Darżynkiewicz E., Laneve R., Nilsen T.W.: Most mRNA in the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides Are trans-spliced: A Role for Spliced Leader Addition in Translational Efficiency.; RNA 1 (1995) 714-723.
  7. Izaurralde E., Lewis J., McGuigan C., Jankowska M., Darżynkiewicz E., Mattaj I.W.: A Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Complex Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing.; Cell 78 (1994) 657-668.
  8. Izaurralde E., Stępiński J., Darżynkiewicz E., Mattaj I. W.: A Cap Binding Protein That May Mediate Nuclear Export of RNA Polymerase II-transcribed RNAs.; J. Cell. Biol. 118 (1992) 1287-1295.
  9. Fischer U., Darżynkiewicz E., Tahara S. M., Dathan N. A., Lührmann R., Mattaj I. W.: Diversity in the Signals Required for Nuclear Accumulation of U snRNPs and Variety in the Pathways of Nuclear Transport.; J. Cell Biol. 113 (1991) 705-714.
  10. Hamm J., Darżynkiewicz E., Tahara S. M., Mattaj I. W.: The Trimethylguanosine Cap Structure of U1 snRNA Is a Component of a Bipartite Nuclear Targeting Signal.; Cell 62 (1990) 569-577.
  11. Darżynkiewicz E., Stępiński J., Tahara S. M., Stolarski R., Ekiel I., Haber D., Neuvonen K., Lehikoinen P., Labadi I., Lönnberg H.: Synthesis, Conformation and Hydrolytic Stability of P1, P3-dinucleoside Triphosphates Related to mRNA 5'-Cap, and Comparative Kinetic Studies on Their Nucleoside and Nucleoside Monophosphate Analogs.; Nucleosides & Nucleotides 9 (1990) 599-618.
  12. Darżynkiewicz E., Stępiński J., Ekiel I., Goyer C., Sonenberg N., Temeriusz A., Jin Y., Sijuwade T., Haber D., Tahara S.M.: Inhibition of Eukaryotic Translation by Nucleoside 5'-Monophosphate Analogues of mRNA 5'-Cap: Changes in N7 Substituent Affect Analogue Activity.; Biochemistry 28 (1989) 4771-4778.
  13. Darżynkiewicz E., Stępiński J., Ekiel I., Jin Y., Haber D., Sijuwade T., Tahara S.M.: ß-Globin mRNAs Capped with m7G, m2,7G or m2,2,7G Differ in Intrinsic Translation Efficiency.; Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (1988) 8953-8962.

Participation in research projects

Role of 5' mRNA and 5' U snRNA cap structures in regulation of gene expression

Studies of the macromolecular structure, dynamics and function in solution

Translation initiation and intracellular transport: biophysics of protein and RNA interactions

Structure and function of cap-4 in early eukaryotes - trypanosomatides; its chemical analogues as potential drug targets against Leishmania